Besides being practically invisible, buried under the building foundation is one of the most important parts of a construction, after all this is the basis that will support the weight of the walls, columns, beams, slabs, roofs and others keeping all this together and planted in the ground, so care in the design and execution of the foundations for the safety the construction.
Let’s name a few types of foundation, but remember that the type of soil, inclination and environmental conditions are important to define what type of foundation to be used, so always consult a specialist to develop your project.
Obs.: The construction with Ecological Bricks can be made with any type of foundation.
Baldrame is a common type of foundation for small buildings. It consists of a beam which may be of masonry, concrete or simply within a small trench aligned to receive pillars. It is most often used in cases of light loads as a residence built on solid ground.
The Sapata (shoe) is a concrete block built directly on the ground into an excavation, it can be isolated (where there are only columns) or running (for the entire length of the construction).
Radier is a type of foundation that resembles a plate or slab covering the entire area of construction. The radiers are reinforced concrete slabs in direct contact with the ground receiving the originating loads of the pillars and walls. Usually the radier is chosen forl foundation with small construction.
The stakes are deep foundation elements executed by equipment and tools, which can be sticked or perforated. Stakes can be made of wood, steel, pre cast concrete, concrete molded spot or mixed.
Caissons are cylindrical foundation elements of broad-based or not that can be run in the open or under compressed air (pneumatic) and with or without coating may this be of steel or concrete. In its final implementation stage, it is necessary to decrease a worker to complete the geometry or to clean the base.
The first row indicates the exact position of each brick, determining the locations of grautes (location of irons) and the openings of doors and windows being implemented within the project.
See the example of the main plants:
PLANT FIRST ROW
PLANT GRAUTES AND OPENINGS
PLANT INDEPENDENCE OF WALLS
Studies indicate that every 8 brick seated the wall moves 1cm, so if the first row is made at the ends of the foundation, the plant should be prepared considering this difference to prevent the bricks exceed the foundation.
The ecological brick can be laid in many ways, the correct choice of the type of glue to settlement to be used in its work is linked directly to the area of application and the need of each customer, so always consult a trained professional.
Among the various forms we will mention the most known and used by builders:
PVA GLUE (white glue)
The PVA glue is the fastest and most practical way, widely used in the settlement of ecological bricks the PVA glue is usually applied to porous materials such as wood, paper, cloth and porous ceramic. For the glue to be firmly it takes 30 minutes to 1 hour and the total drying time is 18 to 24 hours.
POLYMER MORTAR or (BLOCK GLUE, MASS MORE)
There are several types on the market, Mortar Polymer is a mass for immediate gluing and hardening of surfaces with high resistance for bonding and adherence, it has a paste-like consistency and is ready for use. No need to add water and or other components.
CONVENTIONAL MORTAR LAYING
Composed of cement, sand and additives to be mixed with water to have a pasty mass, is usually employed in the laying of ceramic plates and other coating, but there are constructors who use it for the installation of ecological bricks. The best known of mortar types are, ACI, ACII and ACIII, so it should be taken into account if the application will be in place for an external or internal area if the site is subject to large temperature variations. Always consult a professional to assist you in the right choice.
HANDMADE MADE MIX WITH MORTAR, WHITE GLUE PVA AND WATER
Well known among builders this mixture is used 20 parts of mortar x 1 part PVA white glue, add water to the desired consistency.
HANDMADE MADE MIX WITH WHITE GLUE WHITE PVA, SOIL, WATER AND CEMENT
This mixture was used 20 parts of ground x 2 parts white PVA glue x 2 parts of cement, add water until the desired consistency. The trick is to always use a past soil in a finer particle size and sieve if possible, for better adhesion compound and better end result.
SETTLEMENT WITHOUT GLUE (USING THE BRICKS FIT SYSTEM)
Being a modular system, depending on the proposed project, we can dispense the glue between the bricks and use only the locking system of the same.
After the first row is ready, thoroughly clean the surface for the application of glue, apply 2 threads per row of alternating or parallel, so that his work has a perfect alignment, it is indicated the settlement 3-4 rows in the corners to keep the line support.
Seat the in a linear way bricks, always following with a line, always giving the plumb following all the walls at the same height.
A good tip that is practical is to go up the walls with window frames in place, in the case of going up the walls without frames regularly check the distance from the doorways and windows.
Modular Half brick is always used in terminals walls, can be purchased or produced on construction by using a circular saw or hand saw with a Widia disc, in this case indicate a better finish to keep the cut corners facing and to the side openings.
One of the main factors for sustaining of the constructio are the columns and the maid structure, the Modular Building System has the advantage of embedding the columns on the walls, saving on labor and eliminating the excessive use of concrete and wood.
Some builders embed rebar columns (starts) in the foundation, which is the most appropriate, always following the grautes and openings plant. Others prefer to place the rebar after the settlement of the first row as follows: drill and drill with the same thickness rebar, drill the holes at the locations in the plant and then insert the rebar cut to 1.60m.
When the settlement reach half a meter high, indicated to the first mooring of the support columns using the clips (in the corners and against walls), filling all grautes with thin concrete (3 parts sand 1 part gravel X 1 of cement). Repeat the distribution of clips on the channel rows and between the counter-bending and the lintel.
The Modular Canaleta Brick is distributed throughout the work, being used as beam horizontal mooring, receiving iron and concrete forming a band. The band formed by bricks channel are used in three rows in his work, in counter-yards (below the windows), yards (above doors and windows) and in the last row (before Gables).
In courses that receive the channel bricks simple bricks are used in the corners, and made a pit to conduct hardware and digs walls dating is done in brick own channel.
With the hardware in place, use dercartáveis cups to keep open ducts, before water make specific parts that receive the concrete, this will help the cure.
Using a funnel, first fill the pipeline with the rebars then fill in the channel bricks forming the beam mooring. Prior to complete drying of the concrete, remove the glasses and make a sweep which exceed the height limit.
Remember that the sill of the windows are boosted, ie, before being concreted recommend isolate the third brick below the channel in the whole extension of the ledge, then just make the concret normally.
Following the plan indicating the location of doors and windows, builders mostly apply the doors and windows in two ways:
1st – begins and concludes the work until the right foot (slab height) leaving the doorways and windows, and in the evolution of the work the measures of spaces conferred regularly to maintain alignment.
2nd – starts to work and to get at the height of doors or windows, it is the application of prefabricated frames or even the doors and replacement windows, reaching the right foot (slab height) with all the frames already installed.
Remember that the execution of a work must be accompanied by a skilled professional.
Besides serving as layers thermo-acoustic the ducts of ecological bricks are also used as conductors for electrical and hydraulic network, preventing the breakdown of the walls as in conventional construction, but remember to always have available the electric and hydraulic design prepared by a trained professional.
It is highly recommended that all electrical and hydraulic system is installed during the settlement of ecological bricks, that is, to finish up the walls, all this part will be ready.
Another alternative is to pass the electrical and hydraulic part after the completed wall using the ducts that form the walls.
For the passage of conduits and pipes horizontally, use the bricks channels as drivers and concretion later.
There are several ways to make the holes of the electrical boxes and plumbing in ecological brick, but the most used is to use a drill with a hole saw drill and then make the finish with a rasp or chisel.
The minimum radius for the circular walls is 3 meters, preventing the gaps between the bricks is larger than 1 cm which could compromise the elasticity the grout, causing cracks and infiltration’s.
To the corner with angle 45º one thinning will be necessary in the corner with circular saw or hand saw, in the second row thinning is the reverse side.
For angles 45º non-interlaced, concrete vain leaving a space for reframing.
Always have the design of your modulation done by a trained professional.
The Ecological Brick is perfect for use in pillars, columns, walls, etc., since it is fully structural and ducts formed in the settlement allow the passage of vertical steel that after concreted form a super tough set.
The practicality in Ecological Brick of the settlement allows build a column in a few minutes, dispensing caising and molds the final result are columns with a beautiful finish and high strength. Always remember to have the project modulation done by a trained professional.
Here are some examples of the application of ecological bricks in the form of columns:
The settlement of the Ecological floor is fast, practical, beautiful and has a cost-effective, since they adapt to all types of environments allowing the traffic of people and vehicles.
The Ecological floor is seated preferably with sand on a flat surface and compacted with the help of a rubber mallet fitting one by one, after the settlement is necessary to fill the gaps spreading sand with a broom or squeegee, then remove the excess, as shown below.
After setting the Ecological Floors can receive a layer of resin or even a painting, see some examples of Ecological Floors have been finalized.